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DagCoin Draft - Preventing too many transactions merging too many transactions

2019.11.14

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原文: https://bitslog.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/dagcoin-v41.pdf

Preventing too many transactions merging too many transactions

防止太多的交易合并太多的交易

The core idea proposed is that each transaction commits to an authenticated forest of previous unreferenced transactions. To do so, it includes the value C(N), where C(i)=Commit(C(i-1) || T(i)), where T(i) is the hash of a transaction parent and C(0) is the empty string. These are simple recursive commitments so that C(N) allows the payer to reveal any number of parent hashes between 1 to N. The important decision is how many parents the commitment should reveal. Using the transaction as a header, the payer tries to find a proof of work with certain base difficulty (more on this base difficulty later). If the obtained a proof-of-work whose difficulty is 2^k times harder than the base difficulty, it will reveal and reference the first (k+1) nodes of the list. Half of the times a transaction will have a single parent, so only the first node T(N) will be revealed, by providing the complementary hash chain head (C(N-1)). One fourth of the times, two transactions will be referenced, by providing the hashes T(N), T(N-1) and C(N-2).

该提案的核心思想是,每个交易都提交一个以前未被引用的已认证的交易集。 为此,它包括值 C(N),其中 C(i)=Commit(C(i-1) || T(i)),其中 T(i)是父交易的散列,C(0)是空字符串。 这些都是简单的递归提交,因此 C(N)允许支付方在 1 到 N 之间公开任意数量的父散列。 但重要的是要决定提交应公开多少父散列。 要使用这个交易作为头部,支付方需要试图找到满足某些基本难度的工作证明(以后这个基本难度会更大)。 如果获得了难度是基本难度 2^k 倍的工作证明,它将公开和引用列表的第 (k+1) 个节点。 通过提供剩余的散列链头 (C(N-1)),交易在一半的机会下的将拥有单个父节点,所以只公开第一个节点 T(N)。 四分之一的机会里,通过提供哈希值 T(N),T(N-1) 和 C(N-2), 两个交易会被引用。

This system provides a logarithm distribution in the amount of parents, with an average of 2. Also this method cannot be gamed, since referring more parents has a PoW cost.

这个系统提供了呈一个对数分布的父交易的数量,平均为 2. 这种方法不能被操纵,因为引用更多的父交易需要 PoW 成本。

There should be an incentive to include as many references as possible in the authenticated branch. This can be achieved by several methods:
需要有一个激励, 让已认证的分支中包含尽可能多的引用。 这可以通过几种方法来实现:

  1. Invalidating a transaction that has less references than what the PoW requires.
  2. Incrementing the score of a transaction that has more revealed references. For instance, a transaction having K revealed references could add a fractional score of (K-1)/K to the transaction score.
  1. 如果少于 PoW 要求的引用, 则交易是无效的。
  2. 增加有更多已公开引用的交易的分数。 例如,有 K 个已公开引用的交易可以增加 (K-1)/K 倍分数到交易分数上。

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